The New Economic History (a term proposed by J. Hughes) or Cliometrics (coined by S. Reiter), meaning literally the measurement of history, is of very recent origin. The first to claim involvement in it were Conrad and Meyer in 1957 and 1958. Fogel’s  seminal research work (1964) is, in extension, a true revolution in the history of economics, even a complete break with the tradition. It has re-established a role for history in economics, by expressing it in the language of the discipline. Today one can even say that it is an expanding domain in economics, contributing to new debates or challenging old conventional wisdom. The use of econometric techniques and economic theory has not solely contributed to rejuvenating economic history debates and made quantitative arguments unavoidable; it has also contributed to the slow emergence of a new historical awareness among economists.